Milan Kruhek: Cetin, grad izbornog sabora Kraljevine Hrvatske 1527, Karlovačka Županija, 1997, Karslovac. Omissions? Holy Roman Emperor from 15 February 1637 until his death, as well as King of Hungary and Croatia, King of Bohemia and Archduke of Austria. Therefore, after the death of his brother-in-law Louis II, King of Bohemia and of Hungary, at the battle of Mohács on 29 August 1526, Ferdinand immediately applied to the parliaments of Hungary and Bohemia to participate as a candidate in the king elections. Though he supported his brother, Ferdinand also managed to strengthen his own realm. For example, in 1551 he invited the Jesuits to Vienna and in 1556 to Prague. [7] They had fifteen children, all but two of whom reached adulthood: After ascending the Imperial Throne Ferdinand's full titulature, rarely used, went as follows: A further Ottoman invasion was repelled in 1532 (see Siege of Güns). Fer­di­nand was born in Alcalá de Henares, Spain, the son of Queen Joanna I of Castile from the House of Trastámara (her­self the daugh­ter of the Catholic Mon­archs Is­abel I of Castile and Fer­di­nand of Aragon) and Hab­s­burg Arch­duke Philip the Hand­some, who was heir to Max­i­m­il­ian I, Holy Roman Em­peror. The war in Hungary continued. Though always overshadowed by his brother Charles V, Ferdinand had become one of the most successful Habsburg rulers of the 16th century, increasing the hereditary possessions of the Austrian Habsburgs significantly and restoring peace to the empire after decades of religious warfare. Media in category "Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor" The following 50 files are in this category, out of 50 total. Prince-Infante in Spain, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy, Brabant, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Margrave of Moravia, Duke of Luxemburg, the Upper and Lower Silesia, Württemberg and Teck, Prince of Swabia, Princely Count of Habsburg, Tyrol, Ferrette, Kyburg, Gorizia, Landgrave of Alsace, Margrave of the Holy Roman Empire, Enns, Burgau, the Upper and Lower Lusatia, Lord of the Wendish March, Pordenone and Salins, etc. by the higher aristocracy (the magnates or barons) and the Hungarian Catholic clergy in a rump Diet in Pozsony on 17 December 1526. The Pope exonerated Ferdinand and lifted the excommunications in 1555.[14]. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Wikipedia With the death of his grandfather Maximilian I and the accession of his now 19-year-old brother, Charles V, to title of Holy Roman Emperor in 1519, Ferdinand was entrusted with the government of the Austrian hereditary lands, roughly modern-day Austria and Slovenia. Therefore, after the death of his brother-in-law Louis II, King of Bohemia and of Hungary, at the battle of Mohács on 29 August 1526, Fer… He was the son of Charles II, the archduke of Inner Austria, and Maria of Bavaria. Prince-Infante in Spain, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy, Brabant, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Margrave of Moravia, Duke of Luxemburg, the Upper and Lower Silesia, Württemberg and … Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor Label from public data source Wikidata; Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor; Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, 1503-1564; Earlier Established Forms. Ferdinand was also elected King of Hungary, Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, etc. Since Martinuzzi was by this time an archbishop and Cardinal, this was a shocking act, and Pope Julius III excommunicated Castaldo and Ferdinand. Ferdinand was familiar with, and to, the other princes of the Holy Roman Empire. Before his accession, he ruled the Austrian hereditary lands of the Habsburgs in the name of his elder brother, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. . Suleiman marched into Hungary (see Siege of Buda (1541)) and not only drove Ferdinand out of central Hungary, he forced Ferdinand to agree to pay tribute for his lands in western Hungary.[13]. He embellished Vienna and Prague, and invited Italian architects to his realm. He also converted the elected crowns of Bohemia and Hungary into hereditary possessions of the house of Habsburg. In 1552 he negotiated the Treaty of Passau with the Lutheran elector Maurice of Saxony, who was at war with the emperor; and in 1555 he signed the Peace of Augsburg, which, with few interruptions, brought half a century of peace to Germany’s warring religious factions. Ferdinand III (July 13, 1608 – April 2, 1657) was Holy Roman Emperor from February 15, 1637 until his death, as well as King of Hungary and Croatia, King of Bohemia and Archduke of Austria. Ferdinand and his son Maximilian participated in the victorious campaign of Charles V against the German Protestants in 1547. He married Anna of Bohemia and Hungary (1503-1547) 27 May 1521 JL in Linz, Austria. Due to lengthy debate and bureaucratic procedure, the Imperial Diet did not accept the Imperial succession until 3 May 1558. [25] Other historians maintain he was as Catholic as his brother, but tended to see religion as outside the political sphere. Ferdinand II was a member of the House of Habsburg and served as the Holy Roman Emperor (1619–1637), the king of Bohemia (1617–1619 and 1620–1637), and the king of Hungary (1618–1637). He centralized his administration, revoked many urban privileges and confiscated properties. Therefore, after the death of his brother-in-law Louis II, King of Bohemia and of Hungary, at the battle of Mohács on 29 August 1526, Fer… Ferdinand I (10 March 1503, Alcalá de Henares, Spain – 25 July 1564, Vienna, Habsburg domain [now in Austria]) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1558, king of Bohemia and Hungary from 1526, and king of Croatia from 1527 until his death. Ferdinand became suo jure monarch in Austria and succeeded Charles as Holy Roman Emperor. His flexible approach to Imperial problems, mainly religious, finally brought more result than the more confrontational attitude of his brother. Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) reigned as archiduke of Austria from 1521, king of Hungary, Bohemia and Croatia from 1526 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1556 till his death. In 1559 and again from 1564–1568 there were negotiations for a marriage between Charles-Franz and Queen Elizabeth I … In that year Ferdinand made peace with the Ottomans, splitting Hungary into a Habsburg sector in the west and John Zápolya's domain in the east, the latter effectively a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire. But in 1540, just before his death, Zápolya had a son, John II Sigismund, who was promptly elected King by the Diet. 174 relations. For more than three decades he was Charles’s deputy in German affairs, representing him at imperial diets and serving as president of the Reichsregiment (imperial governmental council). Those who had up to this time joined the Reformation obtained religious liberty until the meeting of a council and in a separate compact all proceedings in matters of religion pending before the imperial chamber court were temporarily paused. 123–248). Ferdinand I (Spanish: Fernando I) (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1556, King of Bohemia, Hungary, and Croatia from 1527, and Archduke of Austria from 1521 until his death in 1564. He took possession of Bohemia without difficulty but faced a rival claimant, János Zápolya, in Hungary. Later generations are included although Austrian titles of nobility were abolished in 1919. Ferdinand returned in command of his brother's fleet but en route was blown off-course and spent four days in Kinsale in Ireland before reaching his destination. He was particularly fond of music and hunting. Zápolya fled the country and applied to Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent for support, making Hungary an Ottoman vassal state. Ferdinand I, Holy Roman emperor (1558–64) and king of Bohemia and Hungary from 1526, who, with his Peace of Augsburg (1555), concluded the era of religious strife in Germany following the rise of Lutheranism by recognizing the right of territorial princes to determine the religion of their FERDINAND I (HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE) (1503 – 1564)FERDINAND I (HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE) (1503 – 1564), king of Bohemia, Hungary, and Croatia, 1526; king of the Romans 1531; Holy Roman emperor, 1558.The young Archduke Ferdinand was born on 10 March 1503 in Alcal á de Henares, Spain, and grew up under the supervision of his grandfather, King Ferdinand of Arag ó n and Castile. Venetian ambassadors to Ferdinand recall in their Relazioni the Emperor's pragmatism and his ability to speak multiple languages. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Ferdinand-I-Holy-Roman-emperor, The Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online - Biography of Ferdinand I. Ferdinand was also a patron of the arts. In the summer of 1518 Ferdinand was sent to Flanders following his brother Charles's arrival in Spain as newly appointed King Charles I the previous autumn. Ferdinand also had the support of his brother, the Emperor Charles V. On 10 November 1526, John Zápolya was proclaimed king by a Diet at Székesfehérvár, elected in the parliament by the untitled lesser nobility (gentry). [17] Ferdinand also sought to strengthen the position of the Catholic church in the Bohemian lands, and favoured the installation of the Jesuits there. Given the settlement of 1521 and the election of 1531, Ferdinand became Holy Roman Emperor and suo jure Archduke of Austria. Charles's choices were appropriate. [24] This course of events had been guaranteed already on 5 January 1531 when Ferdinand had been elected the King of the Romans and so the legitimate successor of the reigning Emperor. In 1549, he agreed to support Ferdinand's claim, and Imperial armies marched into Transylvania. Ferdinand I (Spanish: Fernando I) (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1556, king of Bohemia and Royal Hungary from 1526, and king of Croatia from 1527 until his death in 1564. On 24 October 1526 the Bohemian Diet, acting under the influence of chancellor Adam of Hradce, elected Ferdinand King of Bohemia under conditions of confirming traditional privileges of the estates and also moving the Habsburg court to Prague. Notable ancestors includeCharlemagne (747-814), … Also, he often served as Charles' representative in Germany and developed encouraging relationships with German princes. This article about a political figure is a stub. 338–345. Ferdinand I has been the main motif for many collector coins and medals. Aggrieved, however, at Charles’s refusal to reinstate him in recaptured Württemberg and at the emperor’s attempts to ensure the succession of his son Philip (the future Philip II of Spain) to the imperial crown, Ferdinand began to take a more independent stand. [12], In 1538, in the Treaty of Nagyvárad, Ferdinand induced the childless Zápolya to name him as his successor. [1][2] Before his accession, he ruled the Austrian hereditary lands of the Habsburgs in the name of his elder brother, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. After the death of Louis II, Ferdinand ruled as King of Bohemia and Hungary (1526–1564). [10] In return for the throne, Archduke Ferdinand promised to respect the historic rights, freedoms, laws and customs of the Croats when they united with the Hungarian kingdom and to defend Croatia from Ottoman invasion. He married Maria Anna of Bavaria (1574-1616) 23 April 1600 . Generations are numbered by male-line descent from the first archdukes. Ferdinand was unable to keep the Ottomans out of Hungary. [1][2] Before his accession, he ruled the Austrian hereditary lands of the Habsburgs in the name of hi …Charles V left his brother Ferdinand in charge of imperial affairs and departed from Germany after the Worms diet to deal with the many problems besetting his far-flung interests. [16], When he took control of the Bohemian lands in the 1520s, their religious situation was complex. Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor was born 10 March 1503 in Alcalá de Henares, Spain to Philip I of Castile (1478-1506) and Joanna of Castile (1479-1555) and died 25 July 1564 inVienna, Austria of unspecified causes. They were supported by different factions of the nobility in the Hungarian kingdom. Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor (Holy Roman Emperor, 1503-1564, ruled from 1558) Ferdinand I, empereur germanique, 1503-1564 Ferdinand I, imperatore del Sacro romano impero, 1503-1564 He was born, raised, and educated in Spain, and did not learn German when he was young. Ferdinand I (Fernando I) (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1558, king of Bohemia and Hungary from 1526, and king of Croatia from 1527 until his death. In 1526, on the death of his brother-in-law, King Louis II of Bohemia and Hungary, Ferdinand claimed both domains. Charles abdicated in 1556 and Ferdinand adopted the title "Emperor elect", with the ratification of the Imperial diet taking place in 1558,[1][6] while Spain, the Spanish Empire, Naples, Sicily, Milan, the Netherlands, and Franche-Comté went to Philip, son of Charles. A significant number of Utraquists favoured an alliance with the Protestants. Meanwhile, Martinuzzi attempted to keep the Ottomans happy even after they responded by sending troops. In France, the kings and their ministers grew increasingly uneasy about Habsburg encirclement and sought allies against Habsburg hegemony from among the border German territories, and even from some of the Protestant kings. Nicolaus Olahus, secretary of Louis, attached himself to the party of Ferdinand but retained his position with his sister, Queen Dowager Mary. [19] At the conference, which opened on 5 February, Ferdinand cajoled, persuaded and threatened the various representatives into agreement on three important principles promulgated on 25 September: After 1555, the Peace of Augsburg became the legitimating legal document governing the co-existence of the Lutheran and Catholic faiths in the German lands of the Holy Roman Empire, and it served to ameliorate many of the tensions between followers of the "Old Faith" (Catholicism) and the followers of Luther, but it had two fundamental flaws. 249–250; Wernham, pp. The second son of Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor, by his first wife, Maria Anna of Spain, Leopold became heir apparent in 1654 by the death of his elder brother Ferdinand IV. [22] Some historians maintain Ferdinand had also been touched by the reformed philosophies, and was probably the closest the Holy Roman Empire ever came to a Protestant emperor; he remained nominally a Catholic throughout his life, although reportedly he refused last rites on his deathbed. You can help Wikiquote by expanding it. Ferdinand I, Emperor of Germany, 1503-1564. Ferdinand was elected Holy Roman Emperor on 28 August 1619 (Frankfurt), two days earlier the Protestant Bohemian Estates had deposed Ferdinand (as king of Bohemia). Ferdinand was born in Alcalá de Henares, Spain, the second son of Queen Joanna I of Castile from the House of Trastámara (herself the daughter of the Catholic Monarchs Isabel I of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon) and Habsburg Archduke Philip the Handsome, who was heir to Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor. In the Treaty of Weissenburg (1551), Isabella agreed on behalf of John II Sigismund to abdicate as King of Hungary and to hand over the royal crown and regalia. German, Czech, Slovenian, Slovak, Serbian, Croatian: Ferdinand I.; Hungarian: I. Ferdinánd; Spanish: Fernando I; Turkish: 1. Holborn, pp. Finally, in 1561 Ferdinand revived the Archdiocese of Prague, which had been previously liquidated due to the success of the Protestants. After the Ottoman invasion of Hungary the traditional Hungarian coronation city Székesfehérvár came under Turkish occupation. Philip was culturally Spanish: he was born in Valladolid and raised in the Spanish court, his native tongue was Spanish, and he preferred to live in Spain. During the Ottoman wars the territory of the former Kingdom of Hungary shrunk by around 70%. Suleiman had allocated Transylvania and eastern Royal Hungary to John II Sigismund, which became the "Eastern Hungarian Kingdom", reigned over by his mother, Isabella Jagiełło, with Martinuzzi as the real power. This allowed him to play a critical role in the settlement of the religious issue in the Empire. According to the terms set at the First Congress of Vienna in 1515, Ferdinand married Anne Jagiellonica, daughter of King Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary on 22 July 1515. Ferdinand defeated Zápolya at the Battle of Tarcal in September 1527 and again in the Battle of Szina in March 1528. In the 1550s, Ferdinand managed to win some key victories on the imperial scene. The most recent one is the Austrian silver 20-euro Renaissance coin issued on 12 June 2002. Prince Sigismund Augustus married Elisabeth of Austria, Ferdinand's daughter. [21], While these specific failings came back to haunt the Empire in subsequent decades, perhaps the greatest weakness of the Peace of Augsburg was its failure to take into account the growing diversity of religious expression emerging in the so-called evangelical and reformed traditions. He was the last emperor to have real power over the Holy Roman Empire. [17] At first, Ferdinand accepted this situation and he gave considerable freedom to the Bohemian estates. Ferdinand I (Spanish: Fernando I) (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1558, king of Bohemia and Hungary from 1526, and king of Croatia from 1527 until his death. Ferdinand proposed that the Hungarian and Bohemian diets should convene and hold debates together with the Austrian estates, but all parties refused such an innovation. John II Sigismund was also supported by King Sigismund I of Poland, his mother's father, but in 1543 Sigismund made a treaty with the Habsburgs and Poland became neutral. Hostile toward Protestantism, he bore some responsibility for the Lutheran secession from the Diet of Speyer (1529), and, after he had lost Württemberg to the Lutheran landgrave Philip the Magnanimous of Hesse (1534), he helped the emperor defeat the Protestant Schmalkaldic League in 1546–47. After the death of his brother-in-law Louis II, Ferdinand ruled as King of Bohemia and Hungary (1526–1564). Other confessions had acquired popular, if not legal, legitimacy in the intervening decades and by 1555, the reforms proposed by Luther were no longer the only possibilities of religious expression: Anabaptists, such as the Frisian Menno Simons (1492–1559) and his followers; the followers of John Calvin, who were particularly strong in the southwest and the northwest; and the followers of Huldrych Zwingli were excluded from considerations and protections under the Peace of Augsburg. Ferdinand was a supporter of the Counter-Reformation and helped lead the Catholic response against what he saw as the heretical tide of Protestantism. The Spanish empire, which included Spain, the Netherlands, Naples, Milan and Spain's possessions in the Americas, went to his son, Philip. Ferdinand was born in Alcalá de Henares, Spain, the second son of Queen Joanna I of Castile from the House of Trastámara (herself the daughter of the Catholic Monarchs Isabel I of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon) and Habsburg Archduke Philip the Handsome, who was heir to Maximilian I, Holy Roman Empe… Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The Croatian nobles unanimously accepted the Pozsony election of Ferdinand I, receiving him as their king in the 1527 election in Cetin, and confirming the succession to him and his heirs. Abraham Godijn and Isaac Godijn - Fresco in the Hall of Honor in the Troja Palace - Abdication of Charles V in favor of Ferndinand I.jpeg 1,103 × 289; 405 KB. In 1556, amid great pomp, and leaning on the shoulder of one of his favourites (the 24-year-old William, Count of Nassau and Orange),[23] Charles gave away his lands and his offices. On the Protestant issue, Ferdinand, unlike Charles, eventually became convinced of the need for a compromise. He was first the Archduke of Austria from 1521-1564. He was Archduke of Austria from 1521 to 1564. Corrections? The most perilous of these was the war with France, which implicated the emperor in a constantly shifting balance of alliances…. After decades of religious and political unrest in the German states, Charles V ordered a general Diet in Augsburg at which the various states would discuss the religious problem and its solution. [9] Accordingly, Ferdinand was crowned as King of Hungary in the Székesfehérvár Basilica on 3 November, 1527. 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Charles himself did not attend, and delegated authority to his brother, Ferdinand, to "act and settle" disputes of territory, religion and local power. He married Eleonore Gonzaga (1598-1655) 1622 . Ferdinand I (Spanish: Fernando I) (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1556, King of Bohemia, Hungary, and Croatia from 1526, and Archduke of Austria from 1521 until his death in 1564. Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor was born 9 July 1578 in Graz, Austria to Karl II. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Some Czechs were receptive to Lutheranism, but most of them adhered to Utraquist Hussitism, while a minority of them adhered to Roman Catholicism. The new emperor centralized his administration and, though only with limited success, sought to revive Roman Catholicism in his lands. [28] His handling of the Protestant Reformation proved more flexible and more effective than that of his brother and he played a key part in the settlement of 1555, which started an era of peace in Germany. According to the Augsburg agreement, their religious beliefs remained heretical.[22]. First, Ferdinand had rushed the article on reservatum ecclesiasticum through the debate; it had not undergone the scrutiny and discussion that attended the widespread acceptance and support of cuius regio, eius religio. His annual revenues only allowed him to hire 5,000 mercenaries for two months, thus Ferdinand asked for help from his brother, Emperor Charles V, and started to borrow money from rich bankers like the Fugger family.[11]. Ferdinand I (Spanish: Fernando I) (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1556, King of Bohemia, Hungary, and Croatia from 1527, and Archduke of Austria from 1521 until his death in 1564. 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