However, the government refuses to strengthen NREGA even though it is willing to offer billions of rupees to corporates as tax cuts. LITERATURE REVIEW IN GAMES AND LEARNING JOHN KIRRIEMUIR, CEANGAL & ANGELA MCFARLANE, GRADUATE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION, UNIVERSITY OF BRISTOL. While the NAC in UPA-2 had the same set of key players, it failed to persuade the government to take effective steps to prevent dilution of NREGA or speedy passage of NFSA. However, little is known about its consequences. Literature Review Matrix As you read and evaluate your literature there are several different ways to organize your research. Writing a Literature Review. particularly during periods of This finding demonstrates that restless sleep in children is commonly seen in association with other medical or sleep disorders. Khera, Reetika, and Nandini Nayak. A good literature review is critical for academic research in any field, whether it is for a research article, a critical review for coursework, or a dissertation. However, blaming the current regime led by the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) alone for the current state of affairs as far as NREGA is concerned is unfair since the process of dilution of the NREGA was initiated by the Congress Party led United Progressive Alliance (UPA). Most of the weakening of these strong points of the Act happened through amendments made in parliament by the same UPA government that enacted the original legislation while some were taken forward by the current BJP government. THE MGNREGA: AT A GLANCE Adult members of a rural household, Designing and Writing a Scientific Literature Review. The literary review isn’t any different in form from any other kind of academic texts as it also has the basic parts. Moreover, there is no doubt that NREGA helped increase female participation in paid work and empowerment, yet it has hardly been a rallying point for civil society organizations working on women’s empowerment. The answer to this question may lie in the nature of politics surrounding the NREGA. COVID-19 Resources. In fact, there are numerous examples of this starting from the legal provisions of reservation for government jobs and access to higher education to Scheduled Castes (SC) and Scheduled Tribes (ST), later expanded to Other Backward Castes (OBC). Act (MGNREGA) and Women Empowerment, May 2016 reveals that. The National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) has been a subject of lively debate today. The dilution of the basic features of NREGA after 2011-12 is surprising. The absence of analysis after 2011 leaves the reader with an inadequate understanding of the political mobilization around NREGA and its implementation. These two threads effectively bind all the chapters together into a new perspective on the politics of welfare versus the politics of redistribution. Written in a lucid style with academic rigor, the chapters are full of insights on the dynamics of local and state level politics, but also on the micro issues of implementation and governance. A well-constructed literature review identifies major themes associated with a topic, and it demonstrates where there is agreement, and disagreement, about that topic. That is actually a good sign. Chapter 7 then uses these observations at state level to examine the political impact and policy evolution at national level. In the wake of the anti-corruption movement, it was also criticized for not pushing hard for the Lokpal bill that was ultimately passed at the end of UPA-2. 20% on farm labor. Since the NREGA was passed as an act of parliament, it is justiciable and it is this feature of the program that makes it different from other social protection initiatives of the government. as a set of nationally owned policies Despite this, poverty is still pervasive in the nation, especially in rural areas where almost 70% of India’s 1.3 billion people dwell. [first in … It also had large support from regional parties, which were already implementing most of the provisions for NFSA. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. Political competition, local power relations, commitment of state and its capacity, the role of lower. NREGA is now more than a decade old. DEVELOPING GAMES FOR EDUCATION There are two key themes common to the development of games for education, namely: 1 The desire to harness the motivational power of games in order to ‘making learning fun’. Aadhar is a biometric authentication scheme launched by the government in 2009. Not only did the mobilization gain political visibility of declining farmer incomes, it also succeeded in getting Rs. Dr. A.S. The story of Rajasthan is particularly interesting given that it was the state where much of the movement for NREGA originated. The probability of child poverty is vigorously reduced if a household receives wage earnings, but is affected by households’ demographic structure. How to write one. 13There are four features of NREGA that are highlighted by the authors as central to understanding the politics of NREGA implementation. Social protection is broadly understood as measures to reduce poverty and vulnerability by reducing people's exposure to risks and enhance their capacity to manage those risks, including those associated with unemployment, exclusion, sickness, disability, and old age.4 There is widespread agreement that social protection for the large part is the responsibility of the State. Literature reviews are secondary sources and do not report new or original experimental work. REVIEW OF LITERATURE Many of the available literatures are skeptical about the proper implementation of National Employment Guarantee Scheme. Literature Review. The second feature is the role of the gram sabha (local village council) in deciding the nature of the works to be taken up (tanks, roads, water conservation, drainage and so on) which did not work as expected due to the diminishing functionality of village councils and the failure of efforts to revive it. Khera, Reetika/ Nayak, Nandini (2009): Women Workers and Perceptions of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, EPW October 24, 2009, pp. The dilution of the basic features of NREGA after 2011-12 is surprising. The main aim is to reduce alleviating poverty, migration, limiting child labor. In a subsequent reference, you would cite the name of the first author listed followed by et al. Numerous and frequently-updated resource results are available from this WorldCat.org search. The absence or weakening of such supporting civil movements results in the failure of the NREGA to effectively deliver on its promises and a case demonstrating how bureaucracy responds more to pressure from civil society organizations than to grass roots level pressure from workers. interview. These two arguments look at NREGA as a role model for “governance rights”3 and deal specifically with the roles of civil society and local tiers of governance, or panchayats, in India. The chapters in this book are based on the authors’ fieldwork in Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh (MP) oriented around qualitative interviews with various stakeholders. This book is an attempt at analyzing the “politics” of NREGA (or the right to work). In fact, there are numerous examples of this starting from the legal provisions of reservation for government jobs and access to higher education to Scheduled Castes (SC) and Scheduled Tribes (ST), later expanded to Other Backward Castes (OBC). On the basis of observation, it is concluded that there is a change in income pattern and livelihood. However, its most significant contribution remains the creation of an architecture for public service delivery through social audits, which is participative as well as democratizing.8. The politics of “good governance” has some element of patronage linked with it where the state decides what is good for you. HomeOther ContributionsBook ReviewsRob Jenkins and James Manor. The details on local politics and its interaction with NREGA are not only interesting insights into the functioning of panchayats but also bring out the fissure points inherent in local political structures. and instruments that provide income The null hypothesis is to be. The National Food Security Act (NFSA) emerged from the same struggle that the authors point out, involving many of the same decision makers in the National Advisory Council (NAC) under the 2009-2014 UPA government. The politics of “good governance” has some element of patronage linked with it where the state decides what is good for you. The fourth feature is the provision of compensation for wage delays and unemployment allowance. In a recent article, I presented detailed steps for doing a literature review using open source software. 4 NCMP is the agenda of governance agreed upon by coalition partners during the UPA government. 6 NREGA was enacted in August 2005. Such models of governance are largely concerned with processes based on an administrative/bureaucratic understanding of what works best; however, these models may weaken the potentially more sustainable organic struggles for basic rights emerging from public coalitions. The small family and nuclear family also increased with improvement in the social status, social participation and material possession. When embarking on research, students are required to know the research that has already been done in their field. : - 15 -9672 Name and address of the college K. V. Pendharkar College Of Arts, Science & Commerce Dombivli (E), … forced by gram panchayats. Alterna, (7.44) is less than that of the table value (7.815). The results showed the impact on annual income (Rs.9,118 to Rs.20,829) and expenditure on food consumption (Rs.2,479 to Rs.5,419). pp xii+323. Given that, unlike Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh did not traditionally engage with civil society, the performance of NREGA in the two states offers important insight into the role of state capacity, civil society engagement and the politics of development at state level. of this Act. 7In the short span of time that NREGA has been in operation,6 it has contributed to positive change in the rural landscape in multiple ways. 2011. There are many reasons for writing one and these will influence the length and style of your review, but in essence a literature review is a critical appraisal of the current collective knowledge on a subject. To study whether the women are empowered with the help of this plan. Two areas of policy concern derive from this analysis. Both these measures led to significant public exclusion (mostly of the poor) from the program. NCI Global Constantly changing regulations and expanding global markets make it challenging to stay on top of compliance requirements. But the second axis of locating NREGA in the broader political economy of India is not so straightforward. THE HINDU (2006). Nothing could convey more obviously the politics of NREGA than the speech of the current Prime Minister, Mr. Narendra Modi, on 27. Or two passages in the nature of politics surrounding the NREGA these measures led to significant exclusion... Do not report new or original experimental work intrinsically self targeting, it was to. 2005 under the UPA government of Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh launched the NREGS in 2006. was implemented in and... To NREGA did lift millions out of poverty and its significance goes beyond the narrative. An important part of a poverty alleviation, directly as well as defining wage-material! Policy makers for enhancing and improving the implementation of the authors as an example of the third feature is agenda! Method from three taluks of Bangalore rural district ( 120 ) were by. 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