He also very dedicated in his service to humanity, and proved himself to be a very pious and humble young man. He was tortured and executed on the orders of Mughal emperor Jahangir and is the first martyr of Sikh religion, and known as Shaheedan-de-Sartaj. [10][14] It is remembered as Shaheedi Divas of Guru Arjan in May or June according to the Nanakshahi calendar released by the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee in 2003. He attained Guruship on 1 September 1581. Remembering Guru Arjan, who sowed the seed of martyrdom in the Sikh religion. The eldest, Prithi Chand, was clever in social and worldly affairs. [55] Jerome Xavier, in appreciation of the courage of Guru Arjun, wrote back to Lisbon, that Guru Arjan suffered and was tormented. According to Christopher Shackle and Arvind-Pal Singh Mandair, Guru Arjan's compositions combined spiritual message in an "encyclopedic linguistic sophistication" with "Braj Bhasha forms and learned Sanskrit vocabulary".[76]. Also Known As: Guru Arjan Dev Ji, Guru Arjan Ji, Spiritual & Religious Leaders Dehra Saheb . He also contributed more than 2,000 hymns himself and wrote the Sukhmani Sahib Bani. I n an attempt to consolidate his position, the Mughal emperor Jahangir sought to appease the powerful Sunni Muslim orthodoxy at his court. … Arjan Dev was born on 15 April 1563, in Goindval, Tarn Taaran, India, as the son of Guru Ram Das, the fourth Guru in Sikhism, and his wife Mata Bhani. Guru Arjan’s martyrdom becomes the decisive factor in the crystallization of the Sikh Panth. He compiled the sacred songs of all previous Sikh gurus, as well as songs from Hindu and Sufi mystics, and added his own sacred writings. 113-114, Kirpal Singh (2000), Perspectives on Sikh Gurus, National Book Shop, pp. Varam Bahi Gurdas Satki, 9th edition. Who Is The Greatest Female Warrior In History? Guru Arjan spent the first 11 years of his life in Goindwal and the next seven years with his father in Ramdaspur. While awaiting execution, Guru Arjan Dev appointed his son Hargobind as the next guru and instructed him to take up arms and resist Islamic persecution under the Mughal rule. AVere it … [68][69], One of the Sikh community disputes following Guru Ram Das was the emergence of new hymns claiming to have been composed by Nanak. [63] All these versions and meta-narratives became popular in 19th century British colonial literature, such as those of Max Arthur Macauliffe. 38-52), 1617, in Sicques, Tigers or Thieves: Eyewitness Accounts of the Sikhs (1606-1809). Soon large numbers of devotees flocked to meet the new guru and seek his blessings. He also designed the Harmandir Sahib at Amritsar. It states that the Guru's execution was a part of the ongoing persecution of the Sikhs by Islamic authorities in the Mughal Empire,[39] and that the Mughal rulers of Punjab were alarmed at the growth of the Panth. Bibi Bhani was the daughter of Guru Amar Das, and her husband Jetha Sodhi later came to be known as Guru Ram Das. Guru Arjan Dev was the fifth of the ten Sikh Gurus. His martyrdom was a significant turning point in the history of Sikhism. Max Arthur Macauliffe (1883), The Sikh Religion: Its Gurus, Sacred Writings and Authors, Louis E. Fenech (2010), Martyrdom: W.H. SWAN SONG :GURU ARJAN DEV - Guru Arjan Dev was divinely inspired to write The Sukhmani Sahib and thus He is close to my heart. McLeod and his Students, Journal of Punjab studies, University of California Press, 17(1&2), pp. Soon Sikhism became the prominent popular religion of medieval Punjab. They state Prithi Chand left Amritsar, became the Sahib Guru after the martyrdom of Guru Arjan and one who disputed the succession of Guru Hargobind as the next Guru. Coming as he did between Guru Nanak, the founder of Sikh Theocracy, and Guru Govind Singh, the creator of the Khalsa Brotherhood, Guru Arjan Dev combined the prophetic qualities of the one with the dynamic personality of the other. He succeeded his father as the leader of Sikhs upon his death and went on to significantly influence the development of Sikhism. The dasvand financed the building of gurdwaras and langars (shared communal kitchens). The child who was to become the Guru was the youngest. Its members are known as Sikhs. The choice of successor, as throughout most of the history of Sikh Guru successions, led to disputes and internal divisions among the Sikhs. The onlookers were shocked at the brutality meted out to this saintly and peaceful person. In 1595 A.D. Name the wifes of Guru … The Indian lunar calendar determines Sikh and Hindu events of history. Under the rule of which Mughal Emperor was Guru Arjan Dev Ji made to sit on a red-hot iron plate ? They offer a different explanation for the attempt on Hargobind's life, and present him as devoted to his younger brother Guru Arjan. The growing popularity of the guru and Sikhism perturbed the Mughals greatly. He always practised what he preached. The threats, coercion and torture failed to achieve their objective; instead the martyrdom ignited a new life, determination and vigor in the Sikhs. [30], The mainstream Sikh tradition recognised Guru Arjan as the fifth Guru, and Hargobind as the sixth Guru. 1563, to Guru Raam das and Ji Mata Bhani ji. Guru Arjan (1563-1606) Following in the footsteps of his father, Guru Ram Das, Guru Arjan completed construction of the Golden Temple. [23] However, the second version, found in alternate competing texts written by the Prithi Chand led Sikh faction contradict this version (their non-derogatory name is Miharvan Sikhs). They need our help more than any other people. In Lahore on May 25, 1606 A.D. ===== Name the Gurdwara, now in Pakistan, that stands at the place where Guru Arjan Dev Ji was martyred. He compiled the hymns of the previous Sikh Gurus along with selected writings of other saints from different backgrounds which he considered consistent with the teachings of Sikhism. He incarnated on 15 April 1563 and left his body on 30 May 1606. [5] Guru Arjan led Sikhism for a quarter of a century. Leprosy, as you know, is a very bad disease. In which year was Guru Hargobind Ji born ? [206] Hargobind, sixth Sikh Guru, who developed a strong Sikh army and gave the Sikh religion its military character, in accord with the instructions of his father, Guru Arjan (1563–1606), the first Sikh martyr, who had been executed on the order of the Mughal emperor Jahāngīr. Where & when did Guru Arjan Dev Ji achieve martyrdom ? Guru Arjan Dev was the son of Guru Ram Das, the fourth Guru in Sikhism. 1) Guru Nanak Dev Ji 15 April 1469 2) Guru Angad Dev Ji 31 March 1504 3) Guru Amar Das Ji 05 May 1479 4) Guru Ram Das Ji 24 Sep 1534 5) Guru Arjan Dev Ji 15 April 1563 6) Guru Har Gobin Ji 19 June 1595, Guru Har Rai Ji 16 Jan 1630 8) Guru Har Krishan Ji 07 July 1656,Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji,01 April 1621,Guru Gobin Singh Ji,22 Dec 1666 He ordered a copy be brought to him. [54] Dabistan-i Mazahib Mobad states Jahangir tortured Guru Arjan in the hopes of extracting the money and public repudiation of his spiritual convictions, but the Guru refused and was executed. What we Sikhs need to do is to cement the connection between Guru Arjan’s martyrdom and the attack rather than diluting it. Upon assuming the Guru Gaddi he took forward the legacy of his father, and by continuing the efforts of the late Guru Ram Das, established Amritsar as a primary Sikh pilgrimage destination. His tenure as the guru lasted for 25 years over which he greatly enriched the Sikh tradition with his many important contributions. Sikhism, religion and philosophy founded in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent in the late 15th century. [72] His approved collection included hymns from the first four Gurus of Sikhism, those he composed, as well as 17 Hindu bards and 2 Muslim bards. Amandeep Singh Madra and Parmjit Singh. Following many days of torture, the guru was allowed to take a bath in the river Ravi. Guru Arjan Dev formed the first rendition of the Sikh’s holy text, the Adi Granth, by compiling the hymns of the first five Sikh gurus and 15 other great saints, or bhagats, including thirteen Hindu and two Muslim saints. He never minded the apparent insult in the presence of the congregation. More torture followed and hot sand was poured over his body. [73][74] The compilation was completed on August 30, 1604, according to the Sikh tradition and installed in the Harmandir Sahib temple on September 1, 1604. Guru Arjan's Teachings Like the other Gurus, Guru Arjan believed in doing good deeds rather than just preaching. In another Lahore version, Chandu Shah actually prevents Guru Arjan from suffering torture and death by Muslims by paying 200,000 rupees (100,000 crusados) to Jahangir, but then keeps him and emotionally torments him to death in his house. Dehra Saheb In which year was Guru Hargobind Ji born ? Gen eds. [10][11] He refused, was tortured and executed in 1606 CE. [2], According to the Sikh tradition, before his execution, Guru Arjan instructed his son and successor Hargobind to take up arms, and resist tyranny. They need our help more than any other people. Richards, John F. The Mughal Empire, in The New Cambridge History of India. He founded it in 1574 on land he bought for 700 rupees from the owners of the village of Tung. When they were pouring hot sand on the head of Guru Arjan, Guru Arjan, partakh har (living God), was being tested. As soon as he became the Guru at the age of eighteen, Guru Arjan Dev ji became a champion for the welfare of the poor, sick and disadvantaged sections of the community. Sikhism - Sikhism - Guru Gobind Singh and the founding of the Khalsa: Following the death of Tegh Bahadur, Guru Gobind Singh (1666–1708), the most important of all the Gurus with the exception of Guru Nanak, assumed leadership of the Sikhs. He also extended trading into Afghanistan and further afield. personality such as has no parallel. Guru Arjan Dev Ji who is the fifth Guru and first martyr of the Sikhs died through torture after … 1563, to Guru Raam das and Ji Mata Bhani ji. 125-127. The hitherto peace loving community took up arms for self-defense and for protecting the rights of the weaker sections against the atrocities perpetuated by the Mughals. He also completed the building of Darbar Sahib at Amritsar, which had been founded by his father. They became jealous of the guru’s fame and were angry as several Muslims had now become the guru’s Sikhs. He wed Raam Devi, who was issueless, and Ganga ji, and they had one son, Har Govind. 1, 5. "Guru Arjan, Fifth in succession, was the first Guru born as a Sikh. [53], A contemporary Jesuit account, written by Spanish Jesuit missionary Jerome Xavier (1549–1617), who was in Lahore at the time, records that the Sikhs tried to get Jahangir to substitute the torture and death sentence to a heavy fine, but this attempt failed. Only God can stand to sit on a hot plate and be a yogi and then have hot, burning sand put on his head in the month of June and still chant “Sat Naam.” Then for that man only, you can say Guru Arjan partakh har. He referred to Guru Arjan as a Hindu, who had "captured many of the simple-hearted of the Hindus and even of the ignorant and foolish followers of Islam, by his ways and manners...for he three or four generations(of spiritual successors) they had kept this shop warm." The couple had one son, Hargobind. In 1595 A.D. Name the wifes of Guru Hargobind Ji. He compiled the first official edition of the Sikh scripture called the Adi Granth, which later expanded into the Guru Granth Sahib. The Masand not only collected these funds but also taught tenets of Sikhism and settled civil disputes in their region. During his lifetime, the fifth Guru had fully appreciated that in the times ahead, his community will need to defend itself and Dharma at large. [23][70] The concern and the possibility of wrong propaganda, immoral teachings and inauthentic Gurbani led Guru Arjan to initiate a major effort to collect, study, approve and compile a written official scripture, and this he called Adi Granth, the first edition of the Sikh scripture by 1604. Perhaps more bitterness and anger in the Sikhs. Jahangir was jealous and outraged, and therefore he ordered the Guru's execution. by Dr. Pashaura Singh One of the main issues that has drawn scholarly attention in Kartarpur-Banno debate is related to a hymn by Guru Arjan in Ramakali mode. [10][13] His martyrdom is considered a watershed event in the history of Sikhism. 110-112. After his execution by the Muslim officials of the Mughal Empire, his son Hargobind became the sixth Guru in 1606 CE. [23] In one version, Prithi Chand is remembered in the orthodox Sikh tradition as vehemently opposing Guru Arjan, creating a factional sect of the Sikh community. [21] Guru Ram Das was a Khatri of the Sodhi sub-caste. Grewal and Irfan Habib. [35][36][6] But according to Jahangir's own autobiography, most probably he didn't understand the importance of Sikh gurus. Guru Arjan, 1563-1606. Emperor Jahangir who had newly ascended to the throne was an Orthodox Muslim who felt threatened by the spreading of Sikhism in his empire. Continuing the efforts of Guru Ram Das, Guru Arjan established Amritsar as a primary Sikh pilgrimage destination. 75-94, Understanding the Martyrdom of Guru Arjan, "August 31, 1569: Jahangir is born | Knappily", Martyrdom and the Execution of Guru Arjan in Early Sikh Sources, Reconsidering the Sacrifice of Guru Arjan, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Guru_Arjan&oldid=1001656111, People executed for refusing to convert to Islam, Articles having different image on Wikidata and Wikipedia, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 20 January 2021, at 17:54. He himself contributed 2218 hymns to the sacred text. Guru Arjan established three towns – Tarn Taran, Kartarpur, and Sri Hargobindpur. On 30 May 1606 Guru Arjan Dev entered the river never to be seen again. His action contrasts his ancestors Babar, Humayun and Akbar who paid due respects to all the previous four Gurus: Guru Nanak the 1st, Guru Angad the 2nd, Guru Amar Das the 3rd and Guru Ram Das, the 4th. [29] The followers of Prithi Chand called themselves as true followers of Guru Nanak, or Nanakpanthis as they challenged Guru Arjan and his descendants authority. [42] Some Muslim traditional accounts such as of Latif in 19th-century states that Guru Arjan was dictatorial, someone who lived in splendour with "costly attire", who had left aside the rosary and the clothes of a saint (fakir). Indian Men, siblings: Baba Mahan Dev, Baba Prithi Chand, See the events in life of Guru Arjan in Chronological Order. A virtuous soul must be a courageous soul. His father was Hari Das and mother Daya Kaur, both of whom died when he was aged seven. The sacrifice of Guru Arjan Dev Ji is unparalleled affirmation of firm faith and acceptance of torture as Divine will. 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